In the Middle Ages, the name Pilli indicated a wide area, occupied by small villages and three churches, all included in the parish of Fogliano: the rectory of S. Maria, the church of San Lorenzo, the church of San Salvatore a Pilli. A document of 1006 refers on one of these places included in this area, which mentions a Pinuli qui dicitur Crucem within the properties of the monastery of S. Eugenio. During the thirteenth century, each of the three churches became the center of a small village within the territory of Siena. Particularly relevant in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries was the rectory of S. Maria a Pilli, placed near the road leading from Siena to Petriolo and to the Maremma. In the sixteenth century, a lay company dedicated to S. Rocco was formed here and later built its own church dedicated to this Saint, and from which the town took its current name. On top of a small hill you can visit the parish church dedicated to S. Bartolomeo, built in the early nineteenth century and designed by Agostino Fantastici, reusing previous medieval structures still visible on the left wall.