The village has many buildings with interesting elements of medieval times, including in particular a stone tower with sloping base and arched windows. It is remembered for the first time in a document of 959. In the thirteenth century it was part of the territory of Siena and was a small village, which in 1366 was united to the municipality of Sovicille. Baldassare Peruzzi, a famous architect was born here, the 15th January 1480. In 1554 Ancaiano tried to resist the Spanish troops that besieged Siena, but had to surrender, many of its inhabitants were killed. Its present church, dedicated to S. Bartolomeo, was built in 1660 (as written on the portal of the façade) by the will of Pope Alexander VII (Chigi family, owners of the nearby villa Cetinale), replacing the more ancient church remembered since the thirteenth century as a suffragan of the parish of San Giusto a Balli. Its forms are Renaissance and some felt that the project was inspired by earlier designs of Baldassare Peruzzi. It has a Latin cross and is provided with a single nave ending with a semicircular apse. Its coverage, implemented with a vaulted ceiling, is set to a frame of Doric inspiration. In the meeting place of the ship and the transept, rises a hemispherical dome with lantern, protected externally by a cylindrical drum. The front face has two square stone pillars that support a frame made of stone alternated with terracotta above which is the stone gable open in the centre.